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2021年英语高考宾语从句与定语从句在用法上有什么不同

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定语从句和宾语从句的不同

定语从句

在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫作定语从句。

被定语从句修饰的词叫“先行词”。

引导定语从句的词叫关系代词或关系副词。

下面我们结合例句来看一下由that, which, who和whom引导的定语从句:

1.关系代词that引导的定语从句。that在从句中作主语或宾语,可以指人,也可以指物。

如:A plane is a machinethatcan fly. (作主语,指物)

That’s is the best hotelthatI know. (作宾语,指物)

Who is the manthatis reading a book over there? (作主语,指人)

The girlthatwe saw yesterday is Jim’s sister. (作宾语,指人)

2.关系代词which引导的定语从句。which在从句中作主语或宾语,只可以指物。

如:They planted some treeswhichdidn’t need much water. (作主语,指物)

The fishwhichwe bought this morning were not fresh. (作宾语,指物)

3.关系代词who和whom引导的定语从句。who和whom只可以指人,分别在从句中作主语或宾语,口语中通常用who代替whom。

如:The boywhobroke the window is called Tom. (作主语,指人)

The person towhomyou talked just now is Mr Smith. (作宾语,指人)

宾语从句

用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。

引导宾语从句的词有:连词that, whether, if;连接代词who, whose, what, which;连接副词when, where, how, why等。

如:I doubtwhetherhe will succeed.

I wonderwhathe’s writing to me about.

I’ll tell youwhyI asked you to come.

注意:

1.宾语从句既可跟在及物动词后面,也可跟在介词后,还可跟在形容词后。

如:I don’t knowwho all the people are.

Please find outwhen the ship sails for New York.

He was afraidthat the other kids would laugh at him.

2.当宾语从句后有宾语补足语时,则需要用it做形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置。

如:I finditstrangewhat she said at the meeting.

We have madeitclearthat we will learn to deal with various difficult problems.


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